Category: LESSON


FARTHER and FURTHER both mean “at a greater distance, ” and they often are used interchangeably,  though they aren’t quite the same.

FARTHER typically refers to physical length or distance. It is the comparative form of the word “far” when referring to distance.

FURTHER typically refers to abstract distance. It can also mean “to a greater degree,” or “additional.” It refers to time or amount.

Correct: New York is farther north than Washington, DC. (Refers to physical distance)
Correct: The proper solution requires further study. (Meaning “additional,” refers to amount)
Correct: According to the project timetable, we should be further along. (Refers to time)

TIP: Use FARTHER for physical distance and FURTHER for metaphorical/abstract distance. FARther has FAR in it, and “far” obviously relates to physical distance.


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LEND is a verb meaning “give something to someone for a short time, expecting that you will get it back.”
BORROW is a verb meaning, “get something from someone, intending to give it back after a short time.”

When you give something, you LEND it; when you get or receive something, you BORROW it. “Borrow” and “lend” are reciprocal. You LEND a person a book.  That someone is BORROWING it from you.

“Lend” is what the person who gives the book does, and “borrow” is what the person who receives the book does.

lend —-> (TO) someone
someone —-> borrow (FROM)
Hansel will LEND $1000.00 to Gretel.
Gretel will BORROW $1000.00 from Hansel.

“Lend and borrow” are a verb pair, much like “send and receive,” “offer and accept,” and “sell and buy.” You can’t substitute one for the other; one gives, one receives. They have opposite meanings that correspond to giving and taking, respectively.

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HISTORIC: “famous or important in history,” as in a historic occasion

HISTORICAL: “concerning history or past events,” as in historical evidence

Thus, a “historic” event is one that was very important, whereas a “historical” event is something that happened in the past.

Buildings, villages, districts, and landmarks deemed important are often described as “historic” because they are significant to the past (in addition to being of or related to history.)

Societies dedicated to recognizing and preserving these things are called” historical” societies because they are concerned with documenting past history but not momentous in themselves.

The words were originally synonyms—with historic developing second as a shortened historical—but they began to diverge in meaning around the 18th century, and the difference has solidified over time. They are still occasionally mixed up, but the differentiation is now so well-established that using one in place of the other is likely to strike many English speakers as wrong.



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THEN is an adverb relating to time. Depending on its use, it means “at the time” or “afterward.”  For example, “We ate breakfast and then we left for school.”

THAN is a conjunction that is used when comparing two or more things. For example, “Chocolate ice cream is better than strawberry ice cream.”

More examples:

DVDs are more expensive THAN videocassettes.
We ate and THEN we went to the movies.

Memory Trick:

Both “then” and “time” both have the letter “e” in them, and “than” and “comparison” have the letter “a” in them.

thAn = compArison

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i.e. OR e.g.

I.E. is often mixed up with E.G. or considered interchangeable, but they are not! Here’s what they mean and how to avoid mixing them up in the future:

“i.e.” is Latin for “id est,” meaning “that is.”
“e.g.” is Latin for “exempli gratia,” meaning “for example.”

Use “i.e.” when you want to give further explanation for something.
Use “e.g.” when you want to give a few examples but not a complete list.

i.e. = (think: “in essence”)
e.g = (think: “examples given”)

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